Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating, neurodegenerative and chronic disease of the

central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), sometimes incapacitating the person. So far

there is no cure for it and the causes of its origin are unknown. It is believed that in its origin

an alteration occurs in the autoimmune mechanisms of the

body. In the nervous system, myelin is formed by layers of

lipids (fats) and proteins that acts as an insulation of the

nerve impulse that it transmits in jumps from node to node.

Therefore, the more myelinized the neuronal cell is, the

transmission of the message will be faster. MS causes the

body's own defenses to attack myelin. Myelin is the

adipose tissue that surrounds and protects the nerve fiber

of the brain, optic nerves and spinal cord. When myelin

becomes damaged, there is a scar left. Scars are known as

sclera, lesions or plaques, which interrupt the transmission of nervous messages.

Depending on the location, amount and size of the lesions present in the brain and / or

spinal cord, the patient may feel a diversity of

Types of Multiple Sclerosis Four forms of multiple sclerosis are known: • Multiple sclerosis with relapse-remission (Multiple Sclerosis RR) • Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (Multiple Sclerosis PS) • Primary progressive multiple sclerosis (Multiple Sclerosis PP) • Benign Multiple Sclerosis


There are other diseases that can also produce symptoms similar to those seen in multiple sclerosis. Other conditions with an intermittent course and injuries similar to those of multiple sclerosis in white brain matter include: polyarteritis, lupus erythematosus, syringomyelia, spastic paraparesis, several tropical diseases, some types of cancer and certain tumors. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy can produce symptoms similar to those of the acute stage of an attack of multiple sclerosis. The doctor will also need to rule out the following conditions: a stroke, neurosyphilis, spinocerebellar ataxias, pernicious anemia, diabetes, Sjogren's disease and vitamin B12 deficiency. Acute transverse myelitis may indicate the first attack of MS or may identify other problems, such as infection with Epstein-Barr virus or herpes simplex B. Recent reports indicate that Neurological problems associated with Lyme disease may present a clinical picture very similar to that of MS. Researchers continue their research to find a definitive test for diagnosing multiple sclerosis. Until a test is formulated, however, evidence of multiple seizures and of lesions in the central nervous system must be found, A process that can take months or even years before a doctor can make a definitive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Treatment  Until now, there is no known cure for multiple sclerosis. There are treatments that can slow the progression of the disease or alleviate or control specific symptoms that help to maintain a normal quality of life.The medications most frequenly used are the following:  • Steroids to decrease inflammation and severity of  attacks   • Medicines to change the progress of the disease   • Medications to control symptoms Disease Modifying Treatments Aubagio (teriflunomide) Betaseron (interferon beta-1b) Extavia (interferon beta-1b) Lemtrada (alemtuzumab) Plegridy (peginterferon beta-1a) Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate)
Fundación de Esclerosis M ú ltiple de Puerto Rico Centro Internacional de Mercadeo 100 Carr. 165, Torre 1, Ste. 403 Guaynabo, PR   00968 Tel. 787.723.2331
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In recent years great strides have been made in the fight against this disease  .